Methods of Measurements and Counts

Methods of measurements and counts generally followed Nakabo (2002). For the fin formulae, the numbers of spinous and soft fin rays are described by Roman numerals (I, II, III, ......) and Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, ......), respectively. The unbranched soft rays are sometimes expressed in small Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, ......). Spinous fin rays are generally called spines. In the case of the dorsal or anal (sometimes pectoral or pelvic) fins containing spines and soft rays, the numbers of spines and soft rays are separated by a comma. When the dorsal (or anal) fin consists of two or more fins (i.e. first dorsal fin, second dorsal fin, ......), each fin is separated by a hyphen. Gill rakers on the fist gill arch on the right side of the body are used for counting. Numbers of gill rakers on the upper and lower limbs are separated by a "+" sign. When present, the one or more gill rakers between the limbs are included in the lower limb. The arrangement of fishes in this book follows the ordering system of Nelson (1994), with minor modifications.

A (number of anal fin rays).
D (number of dorsal fin rays).
DPC (number of dorsal proccurent caudal fin rays).
DW (disc width).
GR (number of gill rakers).
LGR (number of gill rakers on lower limb).
LL (number of lateral line scales): number of scales on lateral line from the scale behind the posttemporal to the caudal fin base.
LLp (number of pored scales on lateral line): only the number of pored scales on lateral line is counted.
LR (number of scales in longitudinal row): number of scales in longitudinal row from the dorsal end of the opercular membrane to the caudal fin base.
P1 (number of pectoral fin rays).
P2 (number of pelvic fin rays).
PDS (number of predorsal scales): number of scales on the dorsal midline from the origin of dorsal fin forward to occipital region.
SL (standard length): linear distance of from most anterior point of upper lip (or snout) with mouth closed to caudal fin base (posterior end of hypurals, roughly where fold formed by bending caudal fin).
TL (total length): greatest linear distance between most anteriorly projecting part of head with mouth closed and farthest tip of caudal fin when caudal rays squeezed together. All unspecified lengths are assumed to be total lengths.

(Seishi Kimura)
Body parts of dasyatid
Body parts of bony fish
Body parts of bony fish
Body parts of carangid
Body parts of carangid
Gill arch of bony fish
Gill arch of bony fish