By Yukio Iwatsuki and Ukkrit Satapoomin

Aphareus rutilans

Lutjanus argentimaculatus

Lutjanus bengalensis

Lutjanus biguttatus

Lutjanus bohar

Lutjanus decussatus

Lutjanus ehrenbergii

Lutjanus fulviflamma

Lutjanus fulvus

Lutjanus johnii

Lutjanus kasmira

Lutjanus lemniscatus

Lutjanus lutjanus

Lutjanus madras

Lutjanus malabaricus

Lutjanus monostigma

Lutjanus quinquelineatus

Lutjanus russellii

Lutjanus sebae

Lutjanus vitta

Macolor macularis

Pinjalo pinjalo

Pristipomoides flavipinnis

Typical perch-like fishes, oblong in shape, moderately compressed (size to 160 cm). Eye usually moderate; premaxilla usually moderately protrusible; mouth terminal and fairly large; maxilla slipping for most or all of its length under lachrymal when mouth closed; jaws bearing enlarged canine teeth; vomer and palatines usually with teeth. Scales moderate to rather small ctenoid; cheek and operculum scaly; maxilla with or without scales; snout, lachrymal, and lower jaw naked. Dorsal fin continuous or slightly notched, with X-XII spines and 10-19 soft rays; anal fin with III spines and 7-11 soft rays 7-11; pectoral fin rays 14-19; pelvic fins with I spine and 5 soft rays, originating just behind pectoral base. Branchiostegal rays 7. Vertebrae 24 (10 + 14). Color: highly variable; mainly from red through yellow to blue; often with blotches, lines, or other patterns.

Similar families occurring in the area. Caesionidae: mouth small; premaxillae extremely protrusible; teeth small and minute; caudal fin deeply forked, with pointed lobes. Haemulidae: scales present on snout and lachrymal, those in lachrymal often embedded; preoperculomandibular canal lateral system opening under chin through median longitudinal groove or enlarged pores or both; usually no teeth on vomer and palatines; vertebrae 26 or 27. Lethrinidae: opercular membranes broadly united to each other; preopercular margin typically smooth; branchiostegal rays 6; soft rays in dorsal fin 9 or 10; no teeth on vomer or palatines; most species lack scales on cheek; lips frequently fleshy. Nemipteridae: preopercular margin typically smooth; soft rays in dorsal fin 9; soft rays in anal fin usually 7, rarely 8; branchiostegal rays 6; no teeth on vomer or palatines. Sparidae: preopercular margin typically smooth; branchiostegal rays 6; teeth in jaws variable-conical, incisiform, or molariform.

Remarks. Generally bottom-associated fishes, occurring from shallow inshore areas to depths of about 500 m, mainly over reefs or rock outcrops. Active predators, mostly nocturnal, feeding on crustaceans, mollusks, and fishes; several are planktivores.