The collection of the National Museum of Nature and Science runs to over 3.7 million specimens. Most of these are fixed or treated with chemicals to enable long-term preservation, and are therefore of no use in DNA research.

Today, however, DNA is used routinely in research on the diversity of modern biota, so the collection and preservation of specimens from which DNA can be extracted is a duty of the highest importance for the Museum. Established in July 2006, the Center for Molecular Biodiversity Research promotes the development of biodiversity studies. It is a comprehensive facility for the collection and storage of DNA research materials, DNA data and evidentiary specimens from which DNA is extracted.